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تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله
  1. #1
    الشريف الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الشريف الوحيدي
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    Post تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله مابين القرن 13 و 18 للميلاد


    في القرت الثالث عشر والرابع عشر انقسم شرق الأردن إلى اتحادين قبليين قويين كانت المنطقة كلها من جنوب ( العقبة ) حتى وادي الموجيب تعود (لبني عقبة) في حين أن قبيلة ( المهدوي ) سكنة منطقة شمال (وادي الموجيب )

    هذه الإتحادات القبلية كانت على علاقة جيدة بالحكومة الحاكمة في (العهد الأيوبي) وحتى الحكم ( المملوكي) مع ذلك بدى أن قواعد السلطة في تلك الفترة كانت مستقرة .
    وفي وقت الإضطرابات أصبحة هذه القبائل تميل للتوسع (غرب نهر الأردن) بدعم من (حكومة المماليك) بجانب أرايضم التي هي (شرق النهر) . وكانت سلالة ( بني حارثة) من (قبيلة طيء) القديمة . الذين انتقلوا إلى سيناء والنقب بعد الفتح الإسلامي الأول وكان إقليم (بني حارثة) لا يزال ممتدا إلى الغرب من نهر الأردن بين يافا وحيفا ولكن امتدت سيطرتها إلى الشرق حتى سيطرة على الكرك بسهولة . في الوقت الذي كان المماليك بدأو يفقدون سيطرتهم على شرق الأردن. وبدأت تظر قوة جديدة في الجنوب . ومن أول هذه القوى كانت (قبيلة بني عطية) في أوائل القرن (السادس عشر) حيث كانوا قوة لا يستهان بها وكانوا يقومون بالغزو على مراعي الأغنام التابعة سلطان مصر وكانت قوة تهدد (بني غقبة ). وبعد سقوط النظام المملوكي وظهور السلطنة الجديدة للعثمانيين أعطى بني عطية ولائهم للعثمانيين السلطة الجديدة مما جعلهم يسيطرون على الجزأ الشرقي من مصر وأعلنوا أنهم أحلاف للعثمانيين.
    قبيلة بني عطية أنشأة إتحادا للقبائل مثل ما فعل بني عقبة . وتوسعت بنفوذها باتجاهات مختلفة .

    ومن هذه الإتحادات كانت (( قبيلة الوحيدات)) التي توسعت شمالا باتجاه الكرك . والكرك كانت تحت سيطرة أسرة (بني طراباي) من بني حارثة . في القرن السادس عشر طمح فخر الدين وهو أحد زعماء الدروزفي لبنان و المثقفين جدا أن يعمل حضارة في المشرق .
    وقال أنه افترب من تحقييق حلمه , في سنة 1613م كان أحمد طراباي زعيم بني حارثة في الكرك فطمع بأن يكون له موطأ قدم في جنوب شرق الأردن أي أراد غزو الكرك . حيث أرسل لشيخ الوحيدات في تلك المنطقة وطلب منه أن يساعده في غزو الكرك مقابل أن يفرج عن ابنه المسجون في نابلس ما حدث بعد ذلك ليس واضحا تماما لأنه حدثة مناوشات حول أبواب الكرك حيث قطع (الوحيدات) قافلة إمدادات كان على رأسها زعيم طراباي من بني حارثة فقتلوه وأصبح السيطرة في الكرك ((للوحيدات)) بعد أن كان ولائها لفخر الدين . حيث أن العثمانيين ألقو القبض على فخر الدين سنة 1633 وقتلوه وبقية السلطة للوحيدات في الكرك .
    على الرغم من انهيار قبيلة بني عطية إلى أن واحدة من القبائل في المنطقة بدأت تشكل خطرا على قبيلة الوحيدات ألا وهي قبيلة (( العمرو )) وغار العمرو على الوحيدات في غزوة تاريخية انتقل بعدها الوحيدات للعيش في غزة .
    وأصبحة قبيلة العمرو الحكام الجدد لتلك المنطقة بما في ذلك منطقة الكرك في بداية القرن الثامن عشر للميلاد
    وقسمة المنطقة ما بين السردي شمال وادي المجيب وبني عمرو من الجنوب . ولاكن تحركت قوة جديدة في الجنوب
    وهي (قبيلة الوحويطات )و هي كانت أحد قبائل الإتحاد القديم ( لبني عطية) .

    وبقية الموضوع بالغة الإنجليزية

    In the 13th and 14th centuries Transjordan was largely divided between two powerful tribal confederations. The whole region from south of Aqaba up to the Wadi Mujib was the territory of the Beni Okba, while the Mehdawi dwelled in the region north of the Wadi Mujib. These confederations generally were on good terms with the ruling government, that of the Ayyubid, and later the Mamluk empire. [ Photo]
    Power structures like these are never very stable, however, and especially in times of unrest they tend to shift. West of the Jordan a tribe, supported by the Mamluk government, expanded its territory to the east side of the Jordan. The Beni Hareta were descendants from the old confederation of the Tay, who had moved into Sinai and the Negev after the first Islamic conquest. The main territory of the Beni Hareta was still west of the Jordan, between Yafo and Haifa, but they had extended their power to the east, and controlled the plain of Karak as well.
    While the Mamluk empire was losing its grip on Transjordan, a new power started to build up in the south: that of the Beni Atiyeh. We first hear from them in the early 16th century, when they rob the sheep of the Egyptian Sultan. By then they were already a force to be reckoned with, that seriously threatened the Beni Okba. The fall of the Mamluk empire in Egypt, and the rise to power of the Ottomans gave them the chance they needed: they plundered the east part of Egypt, and declared themselves allies of the new government.
    Like the Beni Okba, the Beni Atiye were a confederation of tribes, who now expanded into different directions. One of these tribes, the Uhedat (or Wuhedat) wandered northwards, in the direction of Karak.
    Karak was in the power of the Ibn Turabai, the leading family of the Beni Hareta.
    In the beginning of the 16th century an ambitious and highly cultured Druse leader acquired power in Lebanon. Fakhr ed-Din had a dream of civilizing the Levant, and he came close to realizing it. Ahmed Ibn Turabai, the leader of the Beni Hareta, had already in 1613 opposed Fakhr ed-Din, but now the Druse leader wanted Karak, to gain a foothold in southern Transjordan. He contacted the sheikh of the Uhedat, and promised him the release of his son from a Nablus prison, in exchange for the conquest of Karak.
    What happened next is not entirely clear. Apparently the Uhedat gathered before the gates of Karak, and fell upon a food caravan headed by a Turabai leader. In the following skirmishes the Turabai was killed, and next we find the Uhedat in control of Karak. For Fakhr ed-Din it was too late: in 1633 he was taken prisoner by the Turks, and later killed.
    Although the confederation of the Beni Okba had fallen apart, its tribes remained in the region, and one of them grew to be powerful enough to threaten the power of the Uhedat. This was the tribe of the Beni Amr. In a historic raid they managed to drive them out. (The Ghazu of the Beni Amr) The Uhedat moved to the Gaza region, where they had long had their summer quarters. The Beni Amr became the new rulers of the region, including the town of Karak. At the beginning of the 18th century the region was divided among the Sardiye north of the Wadi Mujib, and the Beni Amr in the south. But a new power was stirring in the south already: that of the Howeitat, one of the tribes from the old confederation of the Beni Atiye
    The population of Karak itself was rather heterogeneous. There was the tribe of the Azezat (The Azeizat), who were Christians, and who had lived in the Karak plateau, according to their own tradition, from before the Islamic conquest. Other groups had wandered in later, like the Halasa, who came from Egypt, or the Imamiye, who were descendants from the turkish Janissars that had originally been sent to control the town by the Mamluk Pashas. One tribe, that of the Majali (The Majali), was destined to play a special role in the history of the town. Their rise to power started when the Beni Amr were the masters of the Karak Plateau, in the beginning of the 18th century


    Two thirds of the population of Karak spent at least part of the year outside the town, in tents, guarding their flocks or harvesting their crop. Relationships between the tribes from the town and those from ‘the land’ played a vital role in the history of the Karak Plateau.
    The Beni Amr were divided into several subtribes, two of which dwelt on the Karak Plateau: the Qaisum to the west and north of Karak, and also in the fertile region of the Ghor Safiye and Ghor Mezra’a; and the Ibn Tebet, who were the ruling branch, and who stayed in Jof. Their sheikh only came to the west occasionally to collect his dues.
    Diab Ibn Qaisum was the leader of the Qaisum. He was a greedy man, who tried to extend his power by all means. He robbed the caravans that came from Sirhan, in spite of the fact that they travelled under the protection of the Amr, and he refused the dues to the main sheikh. Eventually he allied himself to the Hameide, who also camped north of Karak, and challenged the power of the Amr Ibn Tebet. The outcome of this struggle was undecided, but it gave Diab an excuse to expel all the inhabitants of Karak, and plunder the town.
    Diab, as we said, strived for absolute power. His new allies, the Hameide, were demanding, and he began to look for a way to get rid of them. This came when one of the Hameide sheikhs made avances to his (Diab’s) wife, when he was away. The woman informed her husband, with the words “a common stallion wants to mount the noble mare”.
    Diab had to revenge this insult, but the Qaisum were too weak to take on the Hameide on their own. He had, therefore, to make peace with his relatives, the Ibn Tebet. Arab custom says that even when subtribes quarrel and fight among each other, when there is a common enemy, all frictions are forgotten, and they have to support each other.
    Diab counted on this custom, and not in vain. The ibn Tebet, under leadership of their great sheikh Ibrahim, came to his rescue. The Hameide, however, were vassals of the Sardiye, a powerful tribe from Hauran, to whom they paid tribute. The battle was fought near Shihan, and the Hameide were beaten, and had to flee across the wadi Mujib, to the territory of the Adwan. A second joint effort of the Sardiye and the Hameide to recover their territory met with equal results: they were beaten again by Lejjun.
    The fact that Ibrahim Ibn Teben had helped his relative Diab expel the Hameide, did not change their relationship. Ibn Teben helped the Karaki tribes, who still wandered around Hebron, to regain their town, protected them against Diab ibn Qaisum, and even provided them with food during three years, until they were self sufficient again.
    Eventually the Amr Ibn Tebet and another Amr tribe, the Ibn Lasem managed to expel the Qaisum. They fled to Ghor Abu Obeida, and have been there ever since. (Expulsion of the Qaisum).
    The Ibn Tebet now became the masters of the region around Karak. Ibrahim Ibn Tebed died, and was succeeded by his son Jaber. Jaber was everything his father hadn’t been: greedy, cruel and mean. Especially the Karaki christians suffered.
    In the meantime the Karaki, under the leadership of the Majali, had become powerful, and allied themselves to the Hameide and the Beni Sakhr, and together they expelled the Amr. Later, under the government of Yusuf el-Majali they were allowed to return, but they were now only a shadow of their former power. The Majali managed to gain much of the land around the town, and extended their power further and further to the north and the south. They were clever politicians, who played the different tribes against each other. Eventually they held most of the land, both to the north and to the south of Karak, as well as the Ghor

    كيف انتصر العمرو على الوحيدات والقصة مشهورة بإختصار


    11- وكان هناك الشيخ معيّاش الوحيدي الذي كان يسيطر على المنطقة من غزة إلى الكرك والطفيلة و أقول : ورد ذكر لأحد شيوخ الوحيدات و يسمى معيلش بن صقير بن صقر من الفقرا إذ حضر إلى مصر سنة 1053للهجرة وأخذ غفرته من الأقلوم .(1)

    12- أراد العمرو غزو الوحيدي فأرسلوا العيون .

    13- كان الوحيدي جبارا فاتكا صوته مثل صوت الحصان فهابه العمرو .

    14- اتجه غزو العمرو نحو الجفر .

    15- طلب عقيد الغزو من القهوجي أن يسكب فنجانا وقال : يا بني هذا الوحيدي من ذرية الحسن والحسين والوحيدي صاحب بخت ، وهذا فنجان الوحيدي مين يأخذه ويشربه ؟!

    16- نصبوا له كمينا ولكنهم فشلوا وبعد محاولات عديدة أُجبر الوحيدات على الهجرة إلى منطقة غزة



    How the Beni Amr drove out the Uhedat

    To pass through the territory of Tafileh, the Beni Okba (as the Beni Amr continued to call themselves) still had to fight the Uhedat, and therefore they spent the winter at el-Hamad, west of Bosra, where they stayed for three years. During the cold season, they remained quietly in their tents, as far to the east as possible, and every spring, or with the coming of the summer, they returned to fight the Uhedat, but without much result, because the Uhedat were rich, both in men and in possessions. In the fourth year, after they had spent the winter at el-Hamad, the Amr decided to attempt a regular expedition against Tafileh and Karak.

    When they entered the vicinity of the enemy territory, they sent spies during the night, to see whether their adversaries were ready for battle or not. The envoys found the Uhedat preparing to receive them. You should know that when a tribe fears an intrusion from a neighbour with bad intentions, they seldom let themselves be surprised. Neither men nor horses leave the camp, and in order to get the spirit for battle and to provide the enemy spies – who they know will come – with a good show-off, they light great fires during the night; they tell tales of the great acts of their ancestors and of themselves, if they can; they sing war songs, often improvised, because the bedouin is a poet and loves poetry; all this without neglecting to keep their lances ready and their horses saddled.

    The Amr spies went back to tell their masters that they had seen the Uhedat frighteningly well armed and prepaired, and that they had many horses, “because,” they cried out, “their whinnying sounds like the thunder!”.

    The Amr held a counsel; the expedition seemed a difficult one, and they would have retired again, if it had not been for the intervention of their intrepid chief Haza al-Enseyri. “Climb your horses, all of you,” he simply told them, and the next morning they all found themselves together at el-Djafer, east of Ma’an. Here the chief called the clan leaders together again and had coffee made. He took a plain cup, and, holding it in his hand, he gave his warriors the following speech: “Oh Beni Okba, we have started out on an expedition against the Uhedat, and you will be covered in shame if you return to your tents without booty. Last night some of you said: Let us return to our camp, this ghazu will not have a good result, because the Uhedi is protected by fate because he descends from Hassan and Husein. Others, on the other hand said: Let us throw ourselves on the Uhedat and strip them. Well, here is the cup of coffee of the Uhedi; which one of you will take it?” Nobody dared answer. A second invitation had no result either. Finally the old chief called out: “This is the coffee cup of the Uhedi; whoever of you will take it, will also take my daughter Chamah.”. This time his speech had its effect. The girl was already promised to a certain ‘Auda abu Hamich. This man stood up, took the coffee cup from the hands of his chief and threw it on the ground after having swallowed its *******s. At that moment everybody rose and marched to Tafileh. They were sure to win, because Auda, the fiancé of Chamah, by taking the coffee that the chief had offered him, had sworn by this act to kill the enemy chief, in order to gain the hand of the daughter of his leader. As all Arabs do in these expeditions, the Amr divided into two armies: one, called the Ghyarah, consisted of men mounted on camels and would strip the Uhedat of all their animals; the other, called the Kamyn consisted of light cavalry, hid between the hills and in the ravines; they would await the enemy when they wanted to pursue their attackers and recover their stolen animals.

    Because the cavalry was neither strong nor numerous enough to defend themselves or their booty, the first group would then return and catch the enemy between two fires.

    The manoeuvre was a complete success. The Amr, in fact, fell on the flocks and took them all. When the Uhedat armed themselves to follow the ghazu, the cavalry came out of their hiding place and threw themselves on them. Both sides fought with a heroism worthy of a better cause. The chief of the Uhedat was recognised by the young man to whom Haz’a had handed the coffee cup and promised his daughter, and a well-aimed lance-throw cut his chest at the place of his heart. The Uhedi fell down dead: this was the signal for the retreat of his whole tribe, the remains of whom retired to the plains south of Gaza, where they still are today, and carry their ancient name of Tiyaha.
    Thus the Amr remained masters of all the country of Moab and extended their domination to the north up to the Zerqa, the ancient Jabboq.

    Translated from J. Dissard: Les migrations et les vicissitudes de la tribu des 'Amer (Revue Biblique 2, 1905)

    pic: fig 3 zelt der Hauptlinge Whedat (Musil III)
    pic: fig 41 Rauchende Hauptlinge Whedat (Musil III)

    O
    utline
    A. Introduction: early history of Karak
    A. Tribal organization in southern Transjordan:
    B. Tribal organization of the Karak Plateau
    1. Beni Okba
    2. Beni Hareta
    3. Uhedat
    4. Beni Amr
    B. Tribal organization of Karak
    A. The Majali
    B. Diab Ibn Qaisum’s struggle for Karak
    C. The expulsion of Beni Amr
    A. Struggle between the Qaisum and the Hameide
    B. The takeover of the Ibn Tebet
    C. Expulsion of the Ibn Tebet
    D. End of the independence of Karak
    A. Ibrahim Pasha
    B. Takeover of the Ottomans

    المصادر:-
    Resources
    Cultural Studies in the Karak Region of Jordan
    Eveline J. van der Steen
    Karak Resources Project and Appalachian College

    تقبلوا تحياتي
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة الشريف الوحيدي ; 2010-08-21 الساعة 20:47





  2. #2
    ابو محمد السردي غير متواجد حالياً :: مشرف :: الصورة الرمزية ابو محمد السردي
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    مشكور اخي الكريم على الموضوع القيم و المميز
    [poem=font="Simplified Arabic,5,white,bold,normal" bkcolor="transparent" bkimage="backgrounds/22.gif" border="double,6,black" type=2 line=1 align=center use=ex num="0,black"]
    اذا انتسبت إلى قوم فلي شرف = إني من القوم في أطراف حوران
    أنســابهم يعربيات مسلسلة = من نسل عدنان كما من نسل قحطان
    السردية = طوال الايمان [/poem]


  3. #3
    الشريف الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الشريف الوحيدي
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    لا شكر على واجب أخي أبو محمد السردي تواجدك لهو وسام على صدري بارك الله فيك





  4. #4
    معتزالعتيبي غير متواجد حالياً عضو
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    يعطيك الله العافيه على الموضوع الموفيد .....

  5. #5
    الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الوحيدي
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    موضوع جميل يستحق الاشادة . . .

    الغريب ان بريكهارت مؤلف الكتاب في المقطع الثاني نفسه تحدث عن الوحيدات في بني عطية . . .

    وتاريخ الوحيدات حااااااااااااافل بالصدامات مع العمرو ( خصوصاً ) من بني عقبة وسائر بني عقبة عموماً على الرغم من ان احدى الروايات تقول بزواج الوحيدي ونجم جد الترابين من بني واصل الراجعين الى بني عقبة . . .

    فأول صدام بين بني عقبة والوحيدات كان في بير ابن هرماس

    ثم الكرك والطفيلة

    ثم تحالف الوحيدي مع المسالمة ( من بني عقبة ) وحربهم مع العمرو من بني عقبة بعد زواج الوحيدي من اخت شيخ المسالمة

    انتهاء بقصة المطيرية ودور الوحيدي فيها . . .

    يعطيك العافية ابو جاسم . . .
    [poem=font="Traditional Arabic,5,black,bold,normal" bkcolor="transparent" bkimage="" border="none,4,gray" type=1 line=1 align=center use=ex num="0,black"]
    يا زمان العجايب وش بقى ما ظهر=كل ما قلت هانت جد علم(ن) جديد
    ان حكينا ندمنا وان سكتنا قهر=بين قلب(ن) عطيب وبين راس عنيد
    لو تفيد المدامع كان اسيل نهر=مير كثر التوجد والدمع ما يفيد[/poem]

  6. #6
    الشريف الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الشريف الوحيدي
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    حياكم الله أخوي العتيبي وحياك الله أخوي أبو نواف العطوي مروركم شرفني والله





  7. #7
    الشريف الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الشريف الوحيدي
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    يقول الإمام علي بن أبي طالب كرم الله وجهه:


    الناس مـن جهـة الأبـاء أكفاءأبوهـم آدم والأم حـواء



    فإن يكن لهم من أصلهم شرف يفاخرون به فالطين والماء



    وقيمة المرء ما قد كان يُحسنه والجاهلون لأهل العلم أعداء


    فقم بعلم ولا تطلب به بدلا فالناس موتى وأهل العلم أحياء





  8. #8
    صالح العطوي غير متواجد حالياً عضو
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    يعطيك العااافية اخوي الوحيدي
    لك خالص الشكر

  9. #9
    الشريف الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الشريف الوحيدي
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    صالح العطوي
    مذكر المطيري

    أشكر لكم مروركم وبارك الله فيكم والنعم من قبايلكم مطير وبني عطية





  10. #10
    الشريف الوحيدي غير متواجد حالياً عضو الصورة الرمزية الشريف الوحيدي
    تاريخ التسجيل
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    افتراضي رد: تاريخ شرق الأردن وقبائله

    11- وكان هناك الشيخ معيّاش الوحيدي الذي كان يسيطر على المنطقة من غزة إلى الكرك والطفيلة و أقول : ورد ذكر لأحد شيوخ الوحيدات و يسمى معيلش بن صقير بن صقر من الفقرا إذ حضر إلى مصر سنة 1053للهجرة وأخذ غفرته من الأقلوم .(1)
    هذا دليل واضح وضوح الشمس على أن
    معيلش بن صقير بن صقر من الفقرا
    الوحيدي من الأشراف من (الفقرا) وليس بني عطية كما يذكر البعض





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